Latest Research And Treatment of Coronavirus (Covid-19)
Coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread all over the world during the last few months and millions of people have been infected by a coronavirus (COVID-19). Therefore, scientists all around the world are trying to discover an effective treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19). Unfortunately, there is no 100% effective medicine, remedy or vaccine which is recommended for treatment or prevention of COVID-19.
At present, treatment to the patient of coronavirus (COVID-19) is provided through clinical management which includes infection prevention, control measures and supportive care including supplementary oxygen. A mechanical ventilator is also used when it is needed.
Many drugs are under trial and are being studied and tested in several clinical laboratories all across the globe. Some of them are approved for other indications of coronavirus (COVID-19). The purpose of this article is to provide information on some of the approved drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir which are currently in use in the United States.
Remdesivir was originally tested for the treatment of Ebola, but it was not effective in the treatment of Ebola. Now remdesivir is being repurposed for treatment of coronavirus (COVID-19).
It is proven effective for inhibiting the growth of Severe and Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and other similar viruses. Now it is under trial as an intravenous injection with broad antiviral activity against betacoronavirus.
The Food and Drug Administration has currently approved the use of remdesivir for compassionate use, meaning only patients with severe COVID-19 disease can be approved for treatment.
Five clinical trials in China and the U.S. are currently evaluating whether remdesevir can reduce complications or shorten the disease course in COVID-19 patients, the medical news site STAT reported.
An infectious disease specialist, George Thompson treated an early, severe case of COVID-19, see Science magazine he says that the patient got better after getting the drug, about 36 hours after diagnosis. Initially, the doctors were thinking that the patient will die.
However, such evidence is not sufficient to determine the effectiveness of a drug and it has yet needed to be analyzed in the labs.
Chloroquine and Hydroxy Chloroquine
Hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine and are orally administered drugs that have been in use for the treatment of malaria and certain inflammatory conditions. Chloroquine is used for malaria treatment and chemoprophylaxis whereas hydroxychloroquine is used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, but now research in humans suggests that these drugs could effectively treat COVID-19.
Both drugs have in-vitro activity against older types of coronavirus. A study in China shows that the treatment of COVID-19 patients with Chloroquine had clinical and virologic benefits versus a comparison group, and the Chinese have added Chloroquine as a recommended antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19.
Lopinavir-ritonavir did not show promise for the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with pneumonia in a recent clinical trial in China. This trial was underpowered, and Lopinavir-ritonavir is under investigation in a World Health Organization study.
An antiviral drug developed by Fujifilm Toyama Chemical in Japan, called Favipiravir or Avigan, has been used in Japan to treat influenza. Last month, the drug was approved as an experimental treatment for COVID-19 infections, reported by Pharmaceutical Technology.
The drug has been tested in 340 individuals in Wuhan and Shenzhen. “It has a high degree of safety and is clearly effective in treatment,” Zhang Xinmin, of China’s science and technology ministry, reported by The Guardian.
The drug prevents certain viruses from replicating, by shortening the duration of the virus and improving lung conditions (clearly visible on X-rays) in tested patients.
Several other drugs are under investigation in clinical trials or are being considered for clinical trials of prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19 in the United States and worldwide. Information on registered clinical trials for COVID-19 in the United States is available at https://clinicaltrials.gov/external icon
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